Below is an ever increasing list of theorems and algorithms that are very interesting according to my taste.

- Miller-Rabin primality test
- Fermat’s little theorem
- Rabin-Karp pattern matching
- Bloom filter
- Karger’s global min-cut algorithm
- Euclid said, there are infinite number of primes
- Cantor said, you cannot count the real numbers
- Cantor also said, you cannot count the number of distinct infinite sets
- PCP theorem
- Chebyshev said, but Erdos said it again:

There is a prime between a and - Gershgorin’s circle theorem
- Jordan canonical form
- Johnson-Lindenstrauss lemma, and its proof by Gupta and Dasgupta
- Kirchhoff’s matrix tree theorem

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